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Standard Industrial Classifications Codes (SIC Codes) /
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

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51Information and Cultural Industries
This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing (except by wholesale and retail methods) information and cultural products. Establishments providing the means to transmit or distribute these products or providing access to equipment and expertise for processing data are also included.

The unique characteristics of information and cultural products, and of the processes involved in their production and distribution, distinguish this sector from the goods-producing and services-producing sectors.

The value of these products lies in their information, educational, cultural or entertainment content, not in the format in which they are distributed. Most of these products are protected from unlawful reproduction by copyright laws. Only those possessing the rights to these works are authorized to reproduce, alter, improve and distribute them. Acquiring and using these rights often involves significant costs.

The intangible nature of the content of information and cultural products allows for their distribution in various forms. For example, a movie can be shown at a movie theatre, on a television broadcast, through video on demand, or rented at a local video store; a sound recording can be aired on radio, embedded in multi-media products or sold at a record store; software can be bought at retail outlets or downloaded from an electronic bulletin board; a newspaper can be purchased at a newsstand or received on-line. In addition, improvements in information technology are revolutionizing the distribution of these products. The inclusion in this sector of telecommunications carriers and Internet access providers reflects the increasingly important role these establishments play in making these products accessible to the public.

The main components of this sector are the publishing industries (except exclusively on Internet), including software publishing, the motion picture and sound recording industries, the broadcasting industries (except exclusively on Internet), the telecommunications and related services industries (i.e., telephony, including VoIP; cable and satellite television distribution services; Internet access; telecommunications reselling services), data processing industries, and the other information services industries, including Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals. There are establishments engaged in culture-related activities that are classified in other sectors of NAICS. The most important are listed below.

Exclusion(s): Establishments primarily engaged in:

*duplicating information or cultural products in print form, or in the form of optical or magnetic media (31-33, Manufacturing); *wholesaling information and cultural products such as newspapers, books, software, videocassettes, DVDs and sound recordings (41, Wholesale Trade); *retailing information and cultural products such as newspapers, books, software and sound recordings (44-45, Retail Trade); *design activities (54, Professional, Scientific and Technical Services); *producing live presentations that involve the performances of actors and actresses, singers, dancers, musical groups and artists, and other performing artists (71, Arts, Entertainment and Recreation). *preserving and exhibiting objects, sites, and natural wonders of historical, cultural and/or educational value (71, Arts, Entertainment and Recreation); and *performing in artistic productions, and in creating artistic and cultural works or productions as independent individuals (71, Arts, Entertainment and Recreation);

511Publishing Industries (except Internet)
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in publishing newspapers, periodicals, books, databases, software and other works. These works are characterized by the intellectual creativity required in their development and are usually protected by copyright. Publishers distribute, or arrange for the distribution of copies of these works.

Publishing establishments may create the works in-house, or contract for, purchase, or compile works that were originally created by others. These works may be published in one or more formats including traditional print form, electronic and on-line. Publishers of "multimedia" products, such as interactive children's books, multimedia CD-ROM and digital video disk (DVD) reference books, and musical greeting cards are also included. Establishments in this subsector may print, reproduce or offer direct on-line access to the works themselves or they may arrange with others to carry out such functions.

Exclusion(s): Establishments primarily engaged in:

*publishing exclusively on the Internet (51913, Internet Publishing and Broadcasting, and Web Search Portals).

512Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing and distributing video and audio recordings or providing related services, such as post-production services, exhibition services, and motion picture processing and developing services. Sound recording studios are also included.

Exclusion(s): Establishments primarily engaged in:

*mass duplication of pre-recorded audio and video tapes, cassettes, diskettes, DVDs and CD-ROMs (33461, Manufacturing and Reproducing Magnetic and Optical Media); *wholesaling sound recordings (41444, Sound Recording Wholesalers); and *wholesaling pre-recorded video cassettes and DVDs (41445, Video Cassette Wholesalers).

515Broadcasting (except Internet)
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in operating radio and television broadcasting studios and facilities.

Exclusion(s): Establishments primarily engaged in:

*operating telecommunications networks (517, Telecommunications); and *broadcasting exclusively on the Internet (519, Other Information Services).

This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing telecommunications and/or video entertainment services over their own or leased networks, on a resale basis or over client-supplied high speed Internet connections. The establishments of this subsector are grouped into industries on the basis of the nature of services provided (fixed or mobile), the type of network used to deliver those services (wireline or wireless), and the business model they employ (facilities-based or resale).

Exclusion(s): Establishments primarily engaged in:

*the installation and maintenance of broadcasting and telecommunications systems by independent contractors (23, Construction); and *offering limited Internet connectivity at establishments usually known as Internet caf├ęs and a combination of other services such as facsimile services, training, rental of on-site personal computers for word processing, games rooms, or food services (56143, Business Service Centres, or 722, Food Services and Drinking Places).

518Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing the infrastructure for data processing, hosting, and related services.

519Other Information Services
This subsector comprises establishments, not classified to any other industry, primarily engaged in providing other information services. The main components are news syndicates, libraries and archives, Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals, and other information search services on a contract basis.

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