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Standard Industrial Classifications Codes (SIC Codes) /
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

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52Finance and Insurance
This sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in financial transactions (that is, transactions involving the creation, liquidation, or change in ownership of financial assets) or in facilitating financial transactions. Included are:

• establishments that are primarily engaged in financial intermediation. They raise funds by taking deposits and/or issuing securities, and, in the process, incur liabilities, which they use to acquire financial assets by making loans and/or purchasing securities. Putting themselves at risk, they channel funds from lenders to borrowers and transform or repackage the funds with respect to maturity, scale and risk.

• establishments that are primarily engaged in the pooling of risk by underwriting annuities and insurance. They collect fees (insurance premiums or annuity considerations), build up reserves, invest those reserves and make contractual payments. Fees are based on the expected incidence of the insured risk and the expected return on investment.

• establishments that are primarily engaged in providing specialized services that facilitate or support financial intermediation, insurance and employee benefit programs.

In addition, establishments charged with monetary control - the monetary authorities - are included in this sector.

521Monetary Authorities - Central Bank
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing central banking functions, such as issuing currency (paper money); managing the nation's money supply and international reserves; overseeing payment, clearing and settlement systems; holding deposits that represent the reserves of other banks and institutions; and acting as fiscal agent for the federal government.

The institutional arrangements for performing these functions and for conducting monetary policy may differ among the countries. In Canada, these functions are performed by the Bank of Canada, in Mexico by the Bank of Mexico, and in the United States by the Federal Reserve Banks and their branches.

522Credit Intermediation and Related Activities
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in lending funds raised from depositors or by issuing debt, and establishments that facilitate the lending of funds or issuance of credit by engaging in such activities as mortgage and loan brokerage, clearinghouse and reserve services, and cheque-cashing services.

523Securities, Commodity Contracts, and Other Financial Investment and Related Activities
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in putting capital at risk in the process of underwriting securities issues or in making markets for securities and commodities; acting as intermediaries between buyers and sellers of securities; providing securities and commodity exchange services (furnishing space, marketplaces, and often facilities for the purpose of facilitating the buying and selling of stocks, stock options, bonds or commodity contracts); facilitating the marketing of financial contracts; asset management (managing portfolios of securities); and providing investment advice, trust, fiduciary, custody and other investment services.

524Insurance Carriers and Related Activities
This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in underwriting annuities and insurance policies, reinsurance, and the retailing of insurance and the provision of related services to policy holders. Industries are defined in terms of the type of risk being insured against, such as death, loss of employment due to age or disability, and property damage. Establishments that pool risk invest premiums to build up a portfolio of financial assets to be used against future claims. Contributions and premiums are set on the basis of actuarial calculations of probable payouts based on risk factors from experience tables and expected investment returns on reserves.

526Funds and Other Financial Vehicles
This subsector comprises funds, trusts and other financial vehicles organized to hold portfolio assets for the benefit of others, such as unit holders, beneficiaries of pension funds, and investors. These entities earn interest, dividends and other property income, but have little or no employment and no revenue from the sale of services.



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